Volume 3, Issue 5

Volume 3, Issue 5


Research Paper

1. Methodologies for high-speed and low-power VLSI design

High-Speed and Low-power are the major challenges for today’s electronics industries. Power dissipation is an important consideration in terms of Speed/Performance and space for VLSI Chip design. Power management techniques are generally used to designing low power circuits and systems. This thesis presents the various VLSI Design Methodologies for high Speed and Low power management techniques that can meet future challenges to designs low power high speed/performance circuits, algorithm level design. It also describes the many issues regarding circuits design at architectural, logic and device levels and presents various techniques to overcome difficulties.

Published by: Revathi GunthakallaResearch Area: Embedded Systems

Organisation: Vishnu Sree Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, TelanganaKeywords: VLSI, High speed, Low Power consumption, MHS-Domino gates, CMOS, Clock gating etc

Research Paper

2. Impact of the financial result on stock trend prediction using SVM and M-Score

Prediction of the Stock price is the most challing task for today.There are so many techniques to predict the stock value with higher accuracy. There are so many data mining techniques are available to predict the stock rate.In this paper, the SVM is used for the purpose of the classification and accuracy.The other factor which is affected by the stock rate is M-Score question, which shows the manipulation of any company.

Published by: Chakshu PatelResearch Area: Big Data

Organisation: Kalol Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Kalol, GujaratKeywords: Stock prediction, Financial result, Manipulation, SVM, M-Score.

Research Paper

3. Daily news impact on stock using RSS data feed by neural network on big data

As Prediction in Stock market is a difficult task. As Price Change in Stock Market depends on so many points. We are gating to research over Impact of Daily News on Stock Market Companies. We will read daily news related to Financial Sector (Business/Government etc) using RSS Feed of online news portals. Then we are going to mine this news for its effect by category of news, who will be affected by this news, is impact negative or positive? etc. We will generate a model that can be used as a Training Data for Prediction Phase.

Published by: Anjali Babubhai PatelResearch Area: Big Data

Organisation: Kalol Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Kalol, GujaratKeywords: Stock Prediction, Financial Result, Manipulation, SVM

Review Article

4. A review on design of hydraulic disc brakes, calculations and design

The calculation and verification of braking force is a crucial step in the design process of an automobile as the braking system directly factors as a good control and safety feature in the product. While designing, the main objective is to generate more braking force than ideally required to account for inefficiencies in mechanical linkages and hy¬draulic systems. This paper reviews the basic principles and considerations in the braking system design process and further explains the general procedure for the same. The paper also explains a validation method for any designed braking system using a brake performance triangle (BPT) and disc brake design by using different software design and analysis.

Published by: Yash Rastogi, Prashant Shishodiya, Shubham Kumar Singh, Sunil Kumar, Dr. Vinod Kumar SainiResearch Area: Mechanical Engineering

Organisation: IMS Engineering College, Ghaziabad, Uttar PradeshKeywords: Braking force, Linkages.

Review Article

5. FANET routing protocols: Review

FANETs is most evolved research area in today's time it makes use of multi-UAV. Use of UAVs is increasing day by day due to the advancement of sensors, processor, and applications. FANETs is mostly used in the undeployed area such as flood, Drought and most importantly in military reason. The main challenge of FANETs is routing of these multiple UAVs due to high speed which required highly dynamic routing protocols. In this paper, we tried to study already proposed routing protocols.

Published by: Priya KaushikResearch Area: Computer Networking

Organisation: YMCA University of Science and Technology, Faridabad, HaryanaKeywords: UAVs, FANETs, Routing protocols.

Case Study

6. Comparative study of conventional haemorrhoidectomy with harmonic scalpel assisted haemorrhoidectomy

Hemorrhoids are dilated engorged submucosal veins in the anal canal. There are several therapeutic modalities for haemorrhoids but surgical treatment is considered to be most effective. Harmonic scalpel hemorrhoidectomy was compared with conventional in terms of benefits and complication. Methods: The aim of our study was to compare harmonic scalpel haemorrhoidectomy with conventional in terms of intraoperative and postoperative factors for the treatment of grade III and IV piles. Results: In our study of 15 patients average time was 29.4±2.84 minutes while it was 15.32±2.83 minutes in the case group. The mean blood loss was 33.72 ± 1.28 ml, 7.89 ± 1.15 ml in the control and case group respectively. Postoperative pain with VAS Score was 8.38±0.74 in the control group and in case group on the first postoperative day(POD1) was 5.29 ± 0.72. The dose of analgesia was less in the case group. The postoperative wound site soakage was less in the case study, early ambulation and return to normal work was faster in case study group. Conclusion: Harmonic scalpel is a simple, painless, bloodless safe and effective method in terms of blood loss, postoperative pain and early return to normal work because of less lateral thermal injury. Keyword: Haemorrhoidectomy, Harmonic scalpel, Early ambulation, case group, control group.

Published by: Arvind Kumar, Ravindra Prasad, Saikat Majumdar, Kanchan SharmaResearch Area: General Surgery

Organisation: Patna Medical College, Patna, BiharKeywords: Case group, Control group, Harmonic scalpel haemorrhoidectomy.

Research Paper

7. Design, analysis and performance evaluation of hybrid exhaust gas heat recovery device to keep food delivery items warm

In the present age of competitive marketing it has become a necessity to deliver good quality and proper condition products from the production facility to the end user, be it industrial goods, fast moving commercial goods or food products. In this area, the rate of online food delivery item is increased very rapidly. The food item which is to be delivered to the customer requires at least 15 to 20 minutes from the time of making. Meanwhile, the food item gets cooled and so as it loses its quality. The present innovation tackles this problem by providing an arrangement which will keep the food item warm up to the time of delivery. The basic principle of working for this arrangement is transferring heat energy of waste exhaust gas, which is anyways going waste to the food chamber which will maintain the food temperature and also reduces the heat from the exhaust. This innovation will be used mainly for the online food delivery. This can be also used to transfer food from one place to another without losing its quality. The exhaust gas heat recovery has been done many times earlier with the objective to either generate electricity or direct utilization of heat through direct or indirect heating. The project involves the concept and realization of a hybrid indirect heat transfer via heat pipe mechanism and thermoelectric heater mechanism. The project work embodies the selection process of the insulation box, selection of thermoelectric heater module, thermoelectric energy generator module. Thermal analysis for the several parts of the system is one using Ansys workbench steady-state heat transfer and the experimental evaluation of the performance of the device in individual and combined mode is done by suitable test and trial. The system effectiveness has been calculated and comment on the utilization for further applications has been done.

Published by: Nilesh B. Sanap, Dr. D. M. Mate, S. D. KathwateResearch Area: Heat Power Engineering

Organisation: Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, MaharashtraKeywords: Hybrid warmer, Online food delivery, Thermoelectric module, Heat pipe.

Research Paper

8. A self-sufficient waiter robo for serving in restaurants

This article describes the design and development of a waiter Robo which is considered as a possible solution to human automation. The Waiter - robo technology will replace manual work. In cafes, restaurants, hotels, and lodges, many individuals face a lot of problems due to abundant peak hours, the inconvenience of work and due to manual order processing these imperfections can be handled by using an electronic automation system called “Waiter Robo” are used for ordering food, beverages, cleaning tables etc. The order from menu bar via kitchen is broadcasted on the wireless network. The menu bar includes LCD, Keypad, and Bluetooth module. When an individual place an order using the electronic menu bar. Using communication network the order is sent to kitchen and reception. Then food is handover to an individual.

Published by: Salmiya Afsheen, Lubna Fathima, Zabiha Khan, Mohammed ElahiResearch Area: Robotics

Organisation: Ghousia College of Engineering, Ramanagara, KarnatakaKeywords: LCD, Pathfinder sensor, Obstacle sensor, Bluetooth, Arduino.

Research Paper

9. Replacement of two wheeler suspension system with compliant mechanism

In this paper, an attempt is made to replace the existing spring-damper suspension system of a two-wheeler by the compliant mechanism. Suspension details of Hero Igniter bike were obtained and analysis of spring was made for static and total deflection. The initial topology of compliant mechanism was obtained through topology optimization in ANSYS. Final topology along with the shape and size of members of compliant mechanism were obtained through trial and error method. Modal and harmonic analysis of obtained compliant mechanism was done to get frequency response curve which subsequently used for calculation of equivalent damping coefficient of the compliant mechanism. Using the equation of force transmissibility, the force transmitted at various frequency ratios was calculated with the help of equivalent damping coefficient obtained for the compliant mechanism. These values of force transmission were then compared with the corresponding values of the spring-damper suspension system. The force transmission values of compliant mechanism were found to be less than the spring damper suspension system leading to the conclusion that the existing suspension system can well be replaced with the complaint mechanism.  

Published by: Sanket S. Lawande, Dr. Ajay BhattuResearch Area: Engineering and Technology

Organisation: College of Engineering, Pune, MaharashtraKeywords: Compliant Mechanism, Topology Optimization, Modal Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Force Transmissibility.

Research Paper

10. Framework of agile management’s sprint planning in construction projects – AFD method

Though the Construction project management field is persistently developing, the construction industry with its unique nature is facing time-cost overrun during the execution phase. Through literature reviews, it has been found that delay in design documents & change orders during construction are ranked high in causing delays. Agile Management which is also known as ‘Change management’ with its principles belonging to IT industry is introduced into construction’s execution phase. Unstructured interviews and data collection is done to understand the perspective of various professionals in this field. With an ultimate goal of delivering projects on time, within estimated cost and approved work orders, an Agile’s framework for execution phase is established. Also as in IT industry, the structure of Sprint meeting is developed to ease the performance to obtain effective results in the construction project management field.  

Published by: Blessie JohnResearch Area: Building Management

Organisation: CARE School of Architecture, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil NaduKeywords: Time-cost over-run, Agile management, Execution phase, Framework for sprint planning.

Research Paper

11. Finite element analysis of disc brakes for thermal effect

Disc brakes are used to stop or slow down the rotation of the wheel. In this paper, there is discussion regarding heat distribution on the disc brake during the phenomena of braking. Due to change from kinetic energy to mechanical energy heat is been distributed on the disc brake. The reason for Energy change during braking process is friction between the surface of the disc and disc pad. As a result of friction, the temperature rises extremely high. The aim of this study is to perform finite element analysis of disc brake and analyze the thermal effect through examining heat distribution on disc brake using 3-dimensional model. After the analysis, it has been obtained that due to friction between disc pad and disc rotor the temperature rises. Obtained results are used for identifying the effect of heat distribution during the braking process.

Published by: Vijay Singh, Gaurav Grover, Munish KainthResearch Area: Mechanical Engineering

Organisation: Universal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Mohali, PunjabKeywords: Disc Brake, FEM, Thermal, Temperature.

Research Paper

12. Effect of strategic physiognomy on the success of organizational sustainability

The survival of organizations, especially universities, depends largely on the nature of the strategies that are formulated and how to deal with them in the light of changes. The organizations are looking for ways to succeed in this task and looking for the strategic factors that contribute to achieving organizational sustainability. And the concept of strategic physiognomy as a modern term in science. This study aims to identify the effect of strategic physiognomy on organizational sustainability. The conceptual model was formulated through the components of strategic physiognomy (Empowerment, Inspiration, Deep Understanding) and its relation to organizational sustainability. The results indicated that strategic physiognomy has directly and significantly impacted on organizational sustainability.

Published by: Hasim Fawzi Dabbas, Safa Tayeh MuhemmedResearch Area: Business Management

Organisation: University of Kufa, Kufa, IraqKeywords: Strategic Physiognomy Empowerment, Inspiration, Deep Understanding, Organizational Sustainability.

Research Paper

13. Performance analysis on spark and map reduce using streaming data

Dynamic information stream handling utilizing constant programming model for processing large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster is at present a high worry as the measure of information being created is expanding step by step with the development of the Internet of Things, Big Data and Cloud. Big data are portrayed by immense volume that can land with a high speed and in various organizations from numerous sources. Accordingly, continuous programming model strategies ought to be fit for preparing the information to separate an incentive out of it by tending to the issues identified with these qualities that are related to information streams. In this work, we asses and break down the ability to exist Map-Reduce and Spark procedures to deal with dynamic information streams and we introduce whether the current systems are important in the current circumstance.

Published by: Anup N, Dr. Udaya RaniResearch Area: Computer Science

Organisation: Reva University, Bangalore, KarnatakaKeywords: Big data, Spark, Map-reduce, Data streams.

Case Study

14. Development of new features and automation framework from Silverlight to ExtJS

ExtJs is a framework available in a scripting language that is Javascript and is used for constructing useful web applications. It uses the tools and techniques such as Ajax, DHTML, and DOM for scripting. ExtJs includes a set of GUI-based form widgets for use within web applications. Ext JS interacts with jQuery and Prototype. Microsoft Silverlight is a technology that is used in developing internet applications which can be thought similarly as Adobe Flash. Quality is one of the most critical factors which govern the business growth of any company. Software Testing is a fundamental technique that is used to guarantee the quality of the product by finding the bugs in the application. In this growing and competitive market timely delivery of a quality product plays an important role for an organization to be rated high. Therefore this makes the software testing a discipline and a time-consuming task as the applications are getting complex in nature day by day. Test automation gained importance in Industry as it can be used to avoid this situation and helps in improving the quality of the software at the expenditure of optimum cost and time demands continuous and systematic growth. The intent of this paper is to show how MVC with ExtJS has changed the patterns of web development. In this paper, we discuss MVC user interface, enhancements, performance, syntax and productive features which includes pre-built widgets, database migrations and tools for web APIs, asynchronous support and uniform responsive designs. A Test Automation Framework is a structure where several tools and concepts are made to work together to provide a platform for automating the testing process. The RESTful web services are also known as REST API is a Hybrid framework that incorporates both Keyword-Driven as well as the Data-Driven framework, which works like a plug and play template. This Hybrid framework provides a very fast way of creating test automation and also helps users who have less programming knowledge to perform automation easily.  

Published by: Manjushree Sahana V, UdayaRani VResearch Area: Cloud Computing

Organisation: Reva University, Bangalore, KarnatakaKeywords: Rest API, MVC, ExtJs, Automation.

Research Paper

15. Effectiveness of manual cervical traction and mechanical cervical traction with neural mobilization in cervical radiculopathy

Cervical radiculopathy is an entity which frequently presents with upper extremity pain associated with neurological symptoms caused by compression of nerve roots. The purpose of the study was to know effects of manual and mechanical cervical traction with neural mobilization (ULTT-1) in cervical radiculopathy. The study was carried out with 30 samples from personalclinic, 15-15 sample is divided randomly into two groups for treatment. One group is treated with manual traction and neural mobilization and the second group is treated with mechanical traction and neural mobilization. The outcome measurement is taken by VAS for pain. Both the traction with neural mobilization technique was almost equally effective in reducing pain and increasing ROM.  

Published by: MD Sarfaraj, Dr. DeepaliResearch Area: Physiotherapy

Organisation: College of Applied Education and Health Sciences, Meerut, Uttar PradeshKeywords: Manual cervical traction, Mechanical cervical traction, Neural mobilization.

Research Paper

16. A critical study of teacher educators teaching effectiveness in relation to their teaching subjects and teaching experience

The present study aims at investigating the teaching effectiveness of teacher educators in relation to their teaching subjects and teaching experience. Descriptive survey method is adopted for the present study. The sample of 100 teacher educators (with experience / without experience) of B.Ed. colleges in Gautam Buddh Nagar District of Uttar Pradesh has been chosen through the random sampling technique. Teacher effectiveness scale (Kumar and Mutha, 1976) and personal information form have been used to collect the data. The data is subjected to descriptive and differential analyses for verifying null hypotheses. The result revealed that the teacher educators have very highest teacher effectiveness. Beside it is inferred that there is no significant difference between arts and science teacher educators in their teaching effectiveness. Further, it is concluded that there is the significant difference between experienced and non-experienced teacher educators with regard to their teaching effectiveness.

Published by: Geeta Chaudhary, Dr. Murvi Singh RathoreResearch Area: Education

Organisation: Mewar University, Chittorgarh, RajasthanKeywords: Teaching effectiveness, Teacher educator, Teaching experience.

Research Paper

17. Frequent pattern mining on big data using Apriori algorithm

Frequent Pattern Mining is one of the most important tasks to extract meaningful and useful information from raw data. This task aims to extract item-sets that represent any type of homogeneity and regularity in data. Although many efficient algorithms have been developed in this regard, the growing interest in data has caused the performance of existing pattern mining techniques to be dropped. The goal of this paper is to propose new efficient pattern mining algorithms to work in big data. The existing pattern mining algorithms are based on homogeneity and regularity of data. With the dramatic increase on the scale of datasets collected and stored with cloud services in recent years, it takes more computation power for mining process in the cloud. Amount of work also transferred the approximate mining computation into the exact computation, where such methods not improve the accuracy also not enhance the efficiency. The proposed algorithm uses Hadoop distributed file server for frequent pattern mining. The Hadoop distributed file server improves the performance of the system. The Iterative apriori algorithm can be used to extract the frequent pattern from the dataset. In this approach, candidate itemsets are extracted from the initial dataset. The candidate itemsets are generated from the previous iteration. The support count is calculated for each candidate itemset. The support value is the frequency of items. The confidence value should be calculated for finding the dependency between itemsets. The threshold value is calculated and based on this value pruning is performed.

Published by: LakshminarayananResearch Area: Big Data

Organisation: Anna University, Chennai, Tamil NaduKeywords: Frequent pattern mining, Big data, Pruning, Support count, Confidence score, Map Reduce, Hadoop

Research Paper

18. Cognitive dysfunction in early onset and late onset schizophrenia and psychopathology: A clinical and outcome study

The current study aim was first, to examine early and late-onset schizophrenia Performances on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) subtest. Methods: The study was conducted at Ranchi Institute of Neuro- Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS), Kanke, Ranchi. Based on purposive sampling method a group of forty male schizophrenic patients between the age range of 18 to 42 years was taken twenty patients were early-onset schizophrenia (18 to 30 years) and twenty patients were of late onset of schizophrenia (31 to 42) years who were diagnosed according to the DCR, ICD – 10 were selected from different words of RINPAS. Similarly twenty normal controls were selected from different localities of Ranchi. Results: Significant result found on different domains of BPRS . Between the schizophrenics groups the late onset schizophrenics performance was more symptomatic than early onset schizophrenics patient on all parameters of the test . The performance of normal on controls group was better than schizophrenic groups.

Published by: Dr. Rajendra Kumar SharmaResearch Area: Clinical Psychology

Organisation: Amity Institute of Behavioral and Allied Sciences, Gwalior, Madhya PradeshKeywords: Early onset schizophrenia, Late-onset schizophrenia, Cognition and Psychopathology.

Research Paper

19. The effect of cervical traction with neural mobilization in cervical radiculopathy patients

Cervical Traction and Neural Mobilization both have been individually advocated for treatment of cervical radiculopathy due to their various effects. But the combined effect of these techniques applied simultaneously has not been explored in studies. Hence the purpose is to find the effect of the simultaneous application of cervical traction and neural mobilization on improvement in neck pain, radicular symptoms and neck disability in subjects with Cervical Radiculopathy. Methods: An experimental study design, 60 subjects with Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy and ULTT1 (Upper Limb Tension Test) positive for median nerve bias, randomized 20 subjects each into three groups Group A, B and C respectively. Group A received both Cervical Traction and Neural Mobilization. The Group B received only Mechanical Cervical Traction. The Group C received only Neural Mobilization. The duration of intervention was given 3 treatment sessions per week for four weeks. Outcome measures such as Numerical Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change Scale, Neck Disability Index were measured before, at the end of 2nd and 4th-week post-treatment. Results: Comparison of post-intervention means at 2nd and 4th week of treatment there is a statistically significant (p<0.05) difference in improvement in outcome measures between three groups. Group A subjects shown a greater percentage of improvement than Group B and Group C. Conclusion: The present study concludes that simultaneous application of mechanical cervical traction with neural mobilization is more effective in improving pain, functional disability and severity of radicular symptoms than mechanical cervical traction and neural mobilization alone for subjects with unilateral cervical radiculopathy.

Published by: MD SarfarajResearch Area: Physiotherapy

Organisation: Complete Care Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Center, Munger, BiharKeywords: Cervical radiculopathy, Neck pain, Median nerve, Cervical traction, Neural mobilization, Pain, Neck disability, Global rating

Research Paper

20. Study and development of passenger transport station in the center of Bani Walid city-Libya

The movement of public transport in Bani Walid city has been completely stopped since 1999. In 1983-1992, the daily transport routes of Tripoli, Tarhouna, Misurata, and the public taxis which started from the passenger transport station in the center of Bani Walid city to neighboring cities. At present, the private transport sector is suffering from chaos, lack of organization and the absence of a state on the ground in many areas. The purpose of this study is to develop the passenger transport station in the city center so that the public transport sector is improved inside and outside the city. The objective of this study is to facilitate the movement of the traveler inside and to the neighboring cities. Easing congestion and congestion in the city center. The study examines the site of the study "passenger station" to transport passengers to neighboring cities and discusses through the study several questions to owners of passenger cars around the central station to leave the parking spaces that caused congestion and suffocation and confusion within the city. The study also includes a study of the bus and taxi network within the city and linking it to the central passenger station, including three bus and taxi stops in the center of the city. The research includes a design study for the central passenger station by providing a simplified design for the passenger terminal for the owners of taxis and passengers inside and outside the city.

Published by: Mohamed MashriResearch Area: Urban Design

Organisation: College of Technical Sciences, Bani Walid, LibyaKeywords: Passenger, Bani Walid, Transport station, Development.

Research Paper

21. Conservation on Temerloh town

This paper has highlighted the qualities that support the urban heritage conservation of Temerloh Town, Malaysia .Located on Ibrahim Street and near Mosque of Abu Bakar in Temerloh Town. It consists of five units of two storey shops. Principal aim of urban characteristics is to define qualities that maintain the urban way of life. Thus, conservation will aid cultural values and not be limited to isolated examples. The street proportions, based on clear blocks with Clear Street facing elements, create space and are helpful when conservation attitudes are adopted. The sense of place can only be achieved if the urban heritage is still intact and preserved whilst accommodating for new development.

Published by: Mohamed Mashri, Mohamed Ismaeil, Abdulbaset AbdulrahmanResearch Area: Urban Design

Organisation: College of Technical Sciences, Bani Walid, LibyaKeywords: Development, Temerloh town, Malaysia, Conservation.

Research Paper

22. Urban design brief – The old town – Johor city center

The purpose of this Development Brief is to coordinate future development proposals in this area. It reflects wider visual, building use, use of urban space, building character and landscape considerations as well as site-specific opportunities. This document will also inform for any future Local Plan produced by the City Council of Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The City Council's vision for this site is to development of small-scale mixed-use space, together with enlarged activities provision for this part of the town, and allowing clear pedestrian links into or from the site to surrounding areas as slept out in the Johor Bahru structure plan (1997) (2nd amendment).

Published by: Mohamed MashriResearch Area: Urban Design

Organisation: College of Technical Sciences, Bani Walid, LibyaKeywords: Brief, Johor city center, Urban design.

Research Paper

23. Set-shifting ability in patient with frontal lobe impairment and early-onset schizophrenia: A comparative study

The current study aim was first, to examine early-onset schizophrenia and fronal lobe impair Performances on Stroop test. Methods: Based on purposive sampling method a group of thirty male schizophrenic patients between the age ranges of 18 to 35 years will be selected and thirty frontal lobe impaired at same age group. The diagnosis will be according to the DCR, ICD – 10. Results: Schizophrenic Group (SG) and Frontal lobe impaired Group (FLIG) scores Negative Syndrome Scale in both patients group using independent samples t-test. Schizophrenic Group scores were significantly lower than the Frontal lobe impaired Group scores. There was no significant found on it.

Published by: Asha Rani, Dr. Rajendra Kumar SharmaResearch Area: Clinical Psychology

Organisation: Amity Institute of Behavioral and Allied Science, Gwalior, Madhya PradeshKeywords: Early onset schizophrenia, Frontal lobe impairment, and Cognition.

Research Paper

24. Nonvolatile field-programmable gate array with high-reliability and high intensity using1D2R RRAM array

The huge area overhead of the interconnect is one of the serious issues in static random access memory (SRAM)-based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), resulting in high power consumption and slow operating speed. Another major issue is the volatile feature of the SRAM, which results in high standby leakage current and long power-ON time. Resistive random access memory (RRAM) which has a high resistance ratio and zero standby power holds great potential in the FPGA application. The conventional RRAM-based nonvolatile FPGAs (NVFPGAs) can use one-transistor 2-RRAM (1T2R) storage element to replace the SRAM or the one RRAM (1R) cell to swap both the nMOS switch and SRAM. However, those NVFPGA schemes may suffer from the problems of low reliability, high configuration power, and high active leakage power. In this paper, we recommend a novel element [one-diode two RRAM (1D2R) cells] to swap the nMOS switch and 6 Transistors (6T) SRAM. In the meantime, the novel block structures of the logic block, connection block, switch block, and the FPGA architecture based on the 1D2R element are recommended. Compared with the conventional 1T2R-based NVFPGA, our novel structure could improve the operational speed by 53% with a 40.5% lower operating power. Compared with the conventional 1R-based NVFPGA, the recommended scheme could greatly reduce the write error rate by eight orders with greater than 20 times minimum write power.

Published by: Abinaya. S, Gayathri. J, Giridharan. S, Swaminathan. MResearch Area: Engineering

Organisation: SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil NaduKeywords: Crossbar, Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), High reliability, Low power, Nonvolatile, One-diode two-RRAM (1D2R), Resistive random access memory (RRAM), Write error rate